A general history of the world

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An example can be found in Western military technology, which the Indians, like the Russians, Turks, Chinese and Japanese, are eager to learn and use. In fact, Indian princes hired European adventurers to train their armies, so the formerly chaotic feudal ranks gave way to disciplined troops. The Sikhs of the Punjab, for example, built an army that was as well-trained as that of the Punjabis and superior in the use of artillery. In the end, the British won not because of purely military factors, but because of their greater economic resources and because of their unity, which was in sharp contrast to the division among the Indian rulers. Once the British won, the Indians could no longer keep up with Western military technology. The British did not allow the Indians to rise above a certain level in the army,rotary vacuum disc filters, and they were not allowed to have artillery and air forces at all. As a result, the Indians, who set out in this military field in exactly the same way as other non-European peoples, had to follow a different pattern because of the Western conquest. As we have seen, the same is true in other areas – economic, political,Wall Penstocks, and cultural; as a result, India is subject to Western influence more indiscriminately than any other major region in Asia. Chapter 16 China and Japan Historians who know the real secrets of Japan's success in rapidly westernizing also hold clues to the recent history of the Far East. Fairbank The Far East was the last major area of Eurasia to be affected by European expansion. The reason why China and Japan were affected after Russia, the Near East and India was due to various factors. The first and most obvious fact is that the Far East is clearly the farthest part of Eurasia from Europe. China and Japan are not as close to Europe as Russia and the Ottoman Empire; they are farther east and farther north than India. Perhaps the political unity of the two countries in the Far East is more important than their geographical isolation. The European invaders could not implement the divide-and-rule policy in China and Japan, which had worked so well in India. In China and Japan, there are no independent local rulers who can be instigated against the central governments in Beijing and Tokyo. And, with both governments pursuing tough, inward-looking policies, there is no potential fifth column for Europeans to exploit. By the middle of the 17th century, a large number of Christian converts in Japan had been ruthlessly eliminated, and trade between China and Japan with the outside world had been rigidly reduced, fine bubble diffuser ,Mechanical fine screen, thus preventing the development of a large merchant class in China and Japan as in India, because Chinese and Japanese merchants had more contacts with foreign companies than with their own governments. As a result, the two countries in the Far East were able to confine their contacts with Europe to only intermittent trade under strict supervision. But by the middle of the 19th century, the situation had changed suddenly and dramatically. First China and then Japan were forced to open their doors to Sivan's merchants, missionaries, consuls and gunboats. The onslaught was not as overwhelming as in India, where a conquered people had little opportunity to pick and choose what they needed in a foreign culture. But both Far Eastern countries were fundamentally affected, but in exactly the same way. Japan was able to adopt and utilize the principles of the Western powers and use them for self-defense and later expansion of power. China, by contrast, has not been able to reorganize itself in the changed Western way. On the other hand, China is too big and too cohesive to be completely conquered like India and Southeast Asian countries. In this way, China was still in a state of turmoil until the First World War, and even in the decades after that. First, China's opening up For more than 4000 years, the Chinese have developed a unique and autonomous society in the easternmost part of Eurasia. This society, like others in Asia, was based on agriculture rather than commerce, and was ruled by landlords and bureaucrats rather than merchants and politicians. It is this apparently self-sufficient, self-satisfied society that regards the rest of the world as inferior and subordinate. In 1514, when the Portuguese appeared on the sea near the southeast coast, the Chinese began their first direct contact with the West. The Portuguese were followed by the Dutch and the English, who also reached China by sea, and to the north by the Russians, who first reached the Amur Valley by land. The Chinese are determined to avoid intimacy with all these invaders (see Chapter 4, Section 4). They restricted trade relations to a few ports and refused to establish diplomatic relations on the basis of full equality. In fact, the Chinese have no interest in the outside world. This is manifested in their ignorance of Europe and Europeans. They hardly know where Europe is, and they rarely ask. As for the various peoples of Europe, they were completely confused and only referred to them as "long-nosed barbarians". They saw no need for any European products; this was painstakingly clarified by Emperor Qianlong in his famous letter to George III in 1793 (cited in Chapter IX, Section 3). Closed-door and conceited, the Chinese were greatly stimulated by three disastrous wars: the first with Britain in 1839-1842, the second with Britain and France in 1856-1858, and the third with Japan in 1895. The humiliating defeats in these wars forced the Chinese to open their doors, end their condescension to the West,fine bubble diffuser, and re-evaluate their traditional civilization. The result was a chain reaction of invasions and counter-invasions; it produced a new China with effects that shake the Far East and the globe to this day. Britain was able to take the lead in opening the door to China because it had a strong base in India and controlled the oceans. The main purpose of Britain's forcible provocation of disputes is to remove the numerous obstacles that China has set up in the way of doing business. It should not be forgotten that, by the middle of the 19th century, the British had almost come to believe in a divine right to do business in all parts of the world and to regard it as unnatural and reprehensible for some governments to prohibit their own country from trading freely. khnwatertreatment.com